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To analyse the code from the ancient Sumerian civilization, the Ur-Nammu Code, and find its relevance to the recent developments of the restorative justice paradigm.


Research limitations

Only limited to highlighting the potential patterns and principles of the justice system contained in the Ur-Nammu Code.



It is discovered that the dual system of justice has been applied together as a partnership in the Code and their system of justice. With the distinction between restorative or retributive crime and each sanction inside the Code follows the nature and impact of each crime, but as explained, based on the principle and pattern forms or characteristics side of restorative crimes and outcomes in ancient Sumerian civilization, it cannot be separated from the evidence and formality in the Code too. At that time, restorative crime was viewed as a violation of the law, people, and interpersonal relationships, which created obligations and responsibility to put what is right in the Code as part of their social justice.


Practical and Social implications

Provide evidence and disseminate information that the restorative justice system is integral to the retributive justice system. The renewal principle may be applied in the subsequent codification that will also integrate both systems in the future, and the integration values, pattern, or principle of the Code can be an example of integrated dual justice systems.


Keywords: Dualism, Justice, Ancient Sumerian, Ur-Nammu Code

Restorative Justice Principles in Ancient Sumerian Civilization: Learning from t

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