To examine the theoretical basis of traditional criminal justice (TCJ) and restorative justice (RJ) by looking at their key principles.
To examine the practical implementation of TCJ and RJ models and programs.
A review of the literature, including books, articles, scientific studies, concerning TCJ and RJ, primarily in Canada, but also in countries including: England, Wales, The Netherlands, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia.
A comparison of the principles, models and programs of TCJ and RJ.
The differences between TCJ and RJ principles, models and programs are significant. The major difference is that TCJ is primarily concerned with retribution against the offender, whereas RJ focuses on the needs of the victim, offender and the community and their interrelationships; the obligations of the offender and the community vis a vis the victim; and on engaging all of the parties involved.
In the last 40 years RJ programs have been growing in popularity worldwide, and research shows that in most cases RJ programs are more effective than TCJ.
Key Words: criminal; justice; models; restorative; traditional